时间：<2020-07-06 06:38:12 作者：FK武汉空调清洗CW0 浏览量：9777
The expense of patterns should be divided among and charged to the machines for which the patterns are employed, but there can be no constant rules for assessing or dividing this cost. A pattern may be employed but once, or it may be used for years; it is continually liable to be superseded by changes and improvements that cannot be predicted beforehand; and in preparing patterns, the question continually arises of how much ought to be expended on them—a matter that should be determined between the engineer and the pattern-maker, but is generally left to the pattern-maker alone, for the reason that but few mechanical engineers understand pattern-making so well as to dictate plans of construction.
To estimate how much is yet to be learned in mechanical engineering, we have only to apply the same test, and when we contrast the great variance between the designs of machines and the diversity of their operation, even when applied to similar purposes, their imperfection is at once apparent. It must, however, be considered that if the rules of construction were uniform, and the principles of machine operation as well understood as the strength and arrangement of material in permanent structures, still there would remain the difficulty of adaptation to new  processes, which are continually being developed.The main point in hardening and the most that can be done to avoid irregular contraction, is to apply the bath so that it will act first and strongest on the thickest parts. If a piece is tapering or in the form of a wedge, the thick end should enter the bath first; a cold chisel for instance that is wide enough to endanger cracking should be put into the bath with the head  downward.
A milling tool with twenty edges should represent as much wearing capacity as a like number of separate tools, and may be said to equal twenty duplicate tools; hence, in cutting grooves, notches, or similar work, a milling tool is equivalent to a large number of duplicate single tools, which cannot be made or set with the same truth; so that milling secures accuracy and duplication, objects which are in many cases more important than speed.
If a cutting movement were performed by the tool supports, it would necessarily follow that the larger a piece to be planed, and the greater the distance from the platen to the cutting point, the farther a tool must be from its supports; a reversal of the conditions required; because the heavier the work the greater the cutting strain will be, and the tool supports less able to withstand the strains to be resisted.
Cores expand when heated, and require an allowance in their dimensions the reverse from patterns; this is especially the case when the cores are made upon iron frames. For cylindrical cores less than six inches diameter, or less than two feet long, expansion need not be taken into account by pattern-makers, but for large cores careful calculation is required. The expansion of cores is as the amount of heat imparted to them, and the amount of heat taken up is dependent upon the quantity of metal that may surround the core and its conducting power.CHAPTER IX. WIND-POWER.Pens will generally fill by capillary attraction; if not, they should be made wet by being dipped into water; they should not be put into the mouth to wet them, as there is danger of poison from some kinds of ink, and the habit is not a neat one.
Examining machines made by the best designers, it will be found that their dimensions bear but little if any reference to calculated strains, especially in machines involving rapid motion. Accidents destroy constants, and a draughtsman or designer who does not combine special and experimental knowledge with what he may learn from general sources, will find his services to be of but little value in actual practice.The arrangement of patterns with reference to having certain parts of castings solid and clean is an important matter, yet one that is comparatively easy to understand. Supposing the iron in a mould to be in a melted state, and to contain, as it always must, loose sand and 'scruff,' and that the weight of the dirt is to melted iron as the weight of cork is to water, it is easy to see where this dirt would lodge, and where it would be found in the castings. The top of a mould or cope, as it is called, contains the dirt, while the bottom or drag side is generally clean and sound: the rule is to arrange patterns so that the surfaces to be finished will come on the bottom or drag side.
There is not a more generous or kindly feeling in the world than that with which a skilled mechanic will share his knowledge with those who have gained his esteem, and who he thinks merit and desire the aid that he can give.